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2018年6月英语四级阅读200篇第40篇:人与机器人

2018-02-06 14:40

来源:新东方网整理

作者:

  The human brain contains 10 thousand million cells and each of these may have a thousand connections. Suchenormous numbers used to discourage us and cause us to dismiss the possibility of making a machine with human -like ability, but now that we have grown used to moving forward at such a pace we can be less sure. Quite soon, in only 10 or 20 years perhaps, we will be able to assemble a machine as complex as the human brain, and if we can we will. It may then take us a long time to render it intelligent by loading in the right software (软件)or by altering the architecture but that too will happen.

  I think it certain that in decades, not centuries, machines of silicon (硅)will arise first to rival and then exceed their human ancestors. Once they exceed us they will be capable of their own design. In a real sense they will be able to reproduce themselves. Silicon will have ended carbon’s long control. And we will no longer be able to claim ourselves to be the finest intelligence in the known universe.

  As the intelligence of robots increases to match that of humans and as their cost declines through economies of scale we may use them to expand our frontiers, first on earth through their ability to withstand environments, harmful to ourselves. Thus, deserts may bloom and the ocean beds be mined. Further ahead, by a combination of the great wealth this new age will bring and the technology it will provide, the construction of a vast, man-created world in space, home to thousands or millions of people, will be within our power.

  练习题:

  Choose correct answers to the question:

  1.1.In what way can we make a machine intelligent?

  A. By making it work in such environments as deserts, oceans or space.

  B. By working hard for 10 or 20 years.

  C. By either properly programming it or changing its structure.

  D. By reproducing it.

  2.What does the writer think about machines with human-like ability?

  A. He believes they will be useful to human beings.

  B. He believes that they will control us in the future.

  C. He is not quite sure in what way they may influence us.

  D. He doesn’t consider the construction of such machines possible.

  3.The word “carbon” (Line 4, Para.2) stands for _________.

  A. intelligent robots

  B. a chemical element

  C. an organic substance

  D. human beings

  4.A robot can be used to expand our frontiers when _______.

  A. its intelligence and cost are beyond question

  B. it is able to bear the rough environment

  C. it is made as complex as the human brain

  D. its architecture is different from that of the present ones

  5.It can be inferred from the passage that _______.

  A. after the installation of a great number of cells and connections, robots will be capable of self-reproduction

  B. with the rapid development of technology, people have come to realize the possibility of making a machine with human-like ability

  C. once we make a machine as complex as the human brain, it will posses intelligence

  D. robots will have control of the vast, man-made world in space

  1.[C] 事实细节题。第1段末提到,使机器具有智能的方法有两种,要么安装合适软件,要么改变其架构,故C正确。

  2.[A] 观点态度题。作者在最后一段提到智能机器人可为人类做很多好事,故他对机器人态度是肯定的,故A正确,同时排除C。文中只是说机器人会超越人类,但并未提到会控制人类,故B排除;D与第1段末的that too will happen矛盾,故错误。

  3.[D] 词义理解题。文中提到“硅”将会终结“碳”的长期统治地位,联系上文可知,“硅”指的是智能机器人,再结合上文的机器人会超越人类,故可确定“碳”指代的是人类。

  4.[A] 事实细节題。第3段首提到,智能机器人能帮助开发边远地区的条件是intelligence.... increase to match thatof humans和cost declines,A与此相对应,故正确。

  5. [B] 推理判断題。综观全文,作者讨论制作智能机器人的可能性及其影响,B所述与此相符。文中指出智能机器人的自我繁殖就是设计自己,故A错误;第1段指出在制作出与人脑一样复杂的机器人后,还必须花很长时间安装软件或改变架构后才能使其拥有智能,故C错误;D中的控制人造世界属过度推断,文中并未提及。


(实习编辑:杨冰玉)

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