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2018年6月英语四级阅读200篇第55篇:地理与人

2018-02-27 15:53

来源:新东方网整理

作者:

  A subject which seems to have been insufficiently studied by doctors and psychologists is the influence ofgeography and climate on the psychological and physical health of mankind.There seems no doubt that the general character of the landscape, the relative length of day and night, and the climate must all play a big part in determining what kind of people we are.

  It is true that a few studies have been made. Where all the inhabitants of a particular area enjoy exceptionally good or bad health, scientists have identified .contributory factors such as the presence or absence of substances like iodine, fluoride, calcium, or iron in the water supply, or perhaps types of land thatprovide breeding places for pests like mosquitoes or rats.

  Moreover, we can all generalize about types of people we have met. Those living in countries .with long dark winters are apt to be less talkative and less vivacious than inhabitants of countries where the climateis more equable(稳定的). And where the olive and the orange grow, there the inhabitants are cheerful, talkative, and spontaneous.

  But these commonplace generalizations are inadequate: the influence: of climate and geography should be studied in depth. Do all mountain dwellers live to a ripe old age? Does the drinking of wine, rather than beer, result in a sunny and open temperament? Is the strength and height of one of the Kenyan tribes due to their habitual drinking of the blood of cows?

  We are not yet sure of the answers to such .questions, but let us hope that something of benefit to mankind may eventually result from such studies.

  练习题:

  Choose correct answers to the question:

  1.The author's purpose of writing this passage is to______.

  A.alert readers to the scarcity of natural resources

  B.call for more research on the influence of geographical environment

  C.introduce different elements in character cultivation

  D.draw more attention to the health condition of mankind

  2.It can be inferred that proper amounts of iodine, fluoride and calcium can_____.

  A.benefit people’s physical health

  B. influence the quality of water supply

  C.help provide breeding places for pests.

  D. strengthen a person's character

  3.How does the author evaluate the generalizations of people's types in Para. 3?

  A.Such generalizations help us judge the different characters of people we meet

  B.Such generalizations are not inclusive enough to draw a convincing conclusion.

  C.Such generalizations prove that nature plays an important role in determining social habits.

  D.Such generalizations show that there are mainly two different types of people on the planet.

  4.According to the passage, research into the influence of climate and geography should ____.

  A. focus on unknown aspects

  B. be pursued on a larger scale

  C. be carried out among remote tribes

  D. go ahead in depth

  5.What do we know about the generalizations of people’s type?

  A.People who like drinking wine tend to be optimistic.

  B.People who live in mountain areas tend to have a long life.

  C.People who live in areas with stable climate tend to be talkative and lively.

  D.People who like drinking cow blood tend to be strong and tall.

  1.[B] 主旨大意题。本文一开头就提出:关于地理环境对人的影响,研究得还不充分。接下来的每段开头句也都进一步阐述这个观点,如第2段首句和第4段首句,结尾句又提出希望,所以正确答案为B.选项C和D没有全面概括环境和人两方面的因素。选项A完全与文章无关。

  2.[A] 推理判断题。句中的good health与后面的contributory factors告诉读者选项A是正确的。选项B中的the quality是无中生有。选项C中的provide breeding places for pests在文中的主语是land。选项D中的character跟水中的矿物质无关。

  3.[B] 观点态度题。紧接第2段论证环境和健康的关系之后,第3段看似论述环境和个性的关系,举了两种比较典型的环境和性格特征的例子,但是,第4段第1句就把前面的表面现象给否定了,所以此题答案为B。其他三个选项立场都错了。

  4.[D] 事实细节题。作者在第4段第1句破折号后指出应对地理和气候的影响进行更深人的研究,故选项D正确。

  5.[C] 事实细节題。第3段第2句表明选项C正确。这两段都提到了人的类型的归纳,第3段中的归纳是正确的,而第4段中的归纳是有待考证的,因此,本题要依据第3段描述的类型做出选择。


(实习编辑:杨冰玉)

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