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英语四级语法用法辨析:There be 句型

2018-05-07 10:30

来源:新东方网整理

作者:

  There be 句型

  There be句型是一种应用十分广泛和频繁的句型。但是对there be句型的多变的特点及其特殊结构的复杂性,并不是每个考生都熟悉了解。在大学英语四六级考试题中也常常遇到这一句型结构的试题。

  例如: Ann never dreams of _________ for her to be sent abroad very soon.(CET-4,1998.6-43)

  A)there to be a chance

  B)there being a chance

  C)there be a chance

  D)being a chance 该题的答案为B)。

  动词 dream of 要求跟 V-ing 分词结构作宾语,更准确地讲是介词of后要求跟 V-ing 分词结构作宾语,there being a chance意为"有一个机会";A)和C)两项均不符合句子结构的要求,所以不是答案选项,而D)项 being a chance 虽然是 V-ing 分词结构,但语义不通,故不能用。

  又如: No one had told Smith about ____ a lecture the following day.(CET-4,2001.1-66)

  A)there beB)there would be C)there wasD)there being

  该题的答案为D)。介词 about 后要求跟 V-ing 分词结构作宾语,there being(a lecture)意为"有(一个讲座)",而A)、B)和C)项内容均不符合结构要求,故不能雪再如:

  It is fairly common in Africa for there to be an ensemble of expert musicians surrounded by others who join in by clapping,singing,or somehow adding to the totality of musical sound.(CET-4,1995.1)

  该句子中出现了for there to be 的结构,如果按照上一题的解题思路去理解:介词后要求跟 V-ing 分词结构作宾语,那么,这一结构似乎是错的;但是,实际上此结构没有错,此处只能够用 for there to be,而不能用 there being。为什么呢?这就是本文想要解答的问题:there be 句型的特殊结构及其用法。笔者将 there be 句型的几种特殊结构及其用法进行归纳、总结如下,供读者参考。

  一、there be句型与各种情态动词连用。

  例如: There must be something wrong here.

  There might still be some vacant seats in the rear.

  There ought to be something with which to fill your stocking.

  二、there be句型中的谓语动词be被be likely to be,happen to be,seem(to be), occur等代替,用来描写事物。例如:

  There are likely to be more difficulties than they have been prepared for.

  There happened to be nobody in the room.

  There doesn't seem to be much hope of our beating that team .

  There seems no doubt that the general character of the landscape,the relative length of day and night,and the climate must all play a big part in determining what kind of people we are.

  There have occurred many great changes since we met last.

  三、there be 句型中的谓语动词be被一些不及物动词代替,如 live,stand,exist,remain等,用来表示"静止、存在、有"。例如:

  There lives a family of five in the village.

  There remains nothing more to be done.

  There stands the Monument to the People's Heroes at the center of the Tian'anmen Square.

  There exist different opinions on this question.

  四、there be 句型中的谓语动词be被一些不及物动词代替,如 come,spring up,appear,emerge,arrive,enter,follow, 等,用来表示"突然出现"。例如:

  There appears to be no substitute for this stuff yet.

  There came a company of actors and actresses.

  There followed a spirited discussion after class.

  五、there be句型中be用不定式,形成"(for)there to be +宾格词"结构,表示"有"或"存在(某种情况)",在"(for)there to be +宾格词"的结构中,主语是宾格词。这种不定式结构在句中作逻辑宾语、状语和主语。

  1."there to be +宾格词"在句中作宾语。例如:

  The students expected there to be more reviewing classes before the final exams.

  "there to be +宾格词"结构在句中作动词expect的宾语,句中的宾格词m ore review- ing classes作"there to be"不定式结构的逻辑主语。特别应该注意的是there后的不定式只能用"to be"的形式,因为这种不定式结构是从"there be"结构转化而来的。又如:

  People don't want there to be anotherwar.

  Members like there to be plenty of choice.

  Perhaps transportation and the means of comm unication have really made it possible for there to be an end to the big cities.

  It is fairly common in Africa for there to be an ensemble of expert musicians surrounded by others who join in by clapping,singing,or somehow adding to the totality of musical sound.

  "there to be +宾格词"结构在句中作介词for的宾语,句中的宾格词an ensemble of expert musicians 作"there to be"不定式结构的逻辑主语。

  2."for there to be +宾格词"在句中作状语。例如:

  It isn't cold enough for there to be a frost tonight,so I can leave Jim 's car out quite safely.("for there to be +宾格词"作结果状语)

  特别应该注意的是,"for there to be +宾格词"在句中作状语时必须用介词 for引出 there be 后面的宾格词。又如:

  For there to be successful communication, there must be attentiveness and involvement in the discussing itself by all present.("for there to be +宾格词"作目的状语)

  They planned for there to be another meeting.("for there to be +宾格词"作目的状语)

  3."there to be +宾格词"在句中作主语。例如:

  It's a great pity for there to be much trouble in the company. 特别应该注意的是, "for there to be +宾格词"在句中作主语时必须用介词for引出 there be后面的宾格词。又如:

  It is impossible for there to be any more apples.

  For there to be so few people in the streets was unusual.

  六、there be句型中be用V -ing分词,形成"(of)there being +宾格词"结构,表示"有"或"存在(某种情况)",在"(of)there be- ing +宾格词"的结构中,主语是宾格词。

  1."there being +宾格词"在句中作宾语。例如:

  Have you ever thought of there being so many work units for you to choose on the talent's meeting?("there being +宾格词"作宾语)

  "there being +宾格词"结构在句中作介词of的宾语,句中的宾格词so m any work u- nits作"there being"V-ing分词短语结构的逻辑主语。又如:

  No one had told him anything about there being a beautiful story about the lake. John was relying on there being another opportunity.

  2."there being +宾格词"在句中作状语。例如:

  There being no cause for alarm ,she went back to her bedroom.("there being +宾格词"作原因状语)

  "there being +宾格词"结构在句中作状语,句中的宾格词no cause作"there being" V-ing分词短语结构的逻辑主语。又如:

  There having been a strong suspicion against the ability of the director,the department asked him to resign.("there being +宾格词"作原因状语)

  There being nothing to be done,they have to go back home.("there being +宾格词"作原因状语)

  There being no further business,the chairm an closed the meeting.("there being +宾格词"作原因状语)

  3."there being +宾格词"在句中作主 语。例如:

  There being a bus stop so near the house is a great advantage.

  "there being +宾格词"结构在句中作主语,句中的宾格词a bus stop作"there being" V-ing分词短语结构的逻辑主语。

  七、there be 句型中 be 用 be +V-ed 分词,形成"there be +V-ed分词+宾格词"结构,表示"有"或"存在(某种情况)",在"there be +V-ed 分词+宾格词"的结构中,主语是宾格词。例如:

  There was found a lot of food in the kitchen cupboard.

  There are now published millions of books every year in China.

  There was shown at the exhibition an electronic computer made in Shanghai.

  八、"there be no +主语名词"的习惯用法。

  1.V-ing分词在"there be no"结构中作主语,表示"不可能"、"无法"。例如:

  There is no denying the fact that China is still a developing country.

  There is no joking about such matters.

  There is no telling what will happen to him next.

  2.there is no point +V-ing分词,表示"没有必要","无用","没有意义","没有用处"。例如:

  We are disappointed with the new officer elected in our bridge club,but thereis no point worrying about it.

  3.there is no use +V-ing分词,表示"无用","没有意义","没有用处"。例如:

  There is no use advising him to give up smoking.

  4.there is no good +V-ing分词,表示"无用","没有意义","没有用处","没有益处"。例如:

  There is no good discussing the matter with such a fool.

  九、在由"there be +主语名词"引起的句子中,修饰主语的情况。

  1.在由"there be +主语名词"引起的句子中,用来修饰主语的不定式可以用被动形式,也可以用主动形式。例如:

  There is no time to lose /to be lost.

  There are still many things to take care of /to be taken care of. 在口语中多用主动形式。但是有时候两种形式可能表示不同的意思。试比较:

  There is nothing to do now.(We have nothing to do now.)

  There is nothing to be done now.(We can do nothing now.)

  There is nothing to see(nothing worth seeing).

  There is nothing to be seen(nothing there at all).

  2.在由"there be +主语名词"引起的句子中,用来修饰主语的分词或分词短语在意思上相当于一个定语从句。例如:

  There were 200children studying(=who were studying)m usic,dancing,or dram atics.

  Is there anything planned(=that has been planned)for tonight?

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