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2018年6月四级阅读解析(天津新东方)

2018-06-26 15:12

来源:天津新东方

作者:寇思源

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  大学英语四六级考试结束当日,新东方网四六级频道第一时间更新公布英语四六级真题答案,并特别邀请多位新东方名师为广大考生进行考后试题解析。同时广大考生还可随时@新东方网四六级微博及新东方网四六级微信,与线上老师以及考生随时互动答疑,敬请广大考生密切关注新东方网四六级频道以及2018年6月英语四六级真题解析专题。 

  想知道新东方老师如何点评6月考试→_→猛戳

  Section A

  Since the 1940s,southern California has had a reputation for smog. Things are not as bad as they once were but, according to the American Lung Association, Los Angeles is still the worst city in the United States for levels of 26 .Gazing down on the city from the Getty Center, an art museum in the Santa Monica Mountains, one would find the view of the Pacific Ocean blurred by the haze(霾).Nor is the state’s bad air 27 to its south. Fresno, in the central valley, comes top of the list in America for year-round pollution. Residents’ hearts and lungs are affected as a 28 .

  All of which, combined with California’s reputation as the home of technological 29 ,makes the place ideal for developing and testing systems designed to monitor pollution in 30 .And that is just what Aclima, a new firm in San Francisco, has been doing over the past few months. It has been trying out monitoring that are 31 to yield minute-to-minute maps of 32 air pollution. Such stations will also be able to keep an eye on what is happening inside buildings, including offices.

  To this end, Aclima has been 33 with Google’s Street View system. Davida Herzl, Aclima’s boss, says they have revealed pollution highs on days when San Francisco’s transit workers went on strike and the city’s 34 were forced to use their cars. Conversely, “cycle to work” days have done their job by 35 pollution lows.

  A) assisted I) inhabitants

  B) collaborating J) innovation

  C) consequence K) intended

  D) consumers L) outdoor

  E) creating M) pollutants

  F) detail N) restricted

  G) domestic O) sum

  H) frequently

  题目解析:本次四级选词填空相比往年的难度并没有差异,单词的考察的还是不同词性用法以及词的正确形式的使用。除此之外,根据文章上下文选择符合文章逻辑的正确含义的词依旧是难点。所以,选词填空对于绝大部分的学生来说,应该明确的思路是—缩小选择范围,这样才能最大可能的判断正确选项。缩小选择范围的四个步骤:1.划分词性 2.判断主旨 3.判断词性与形式 4.代入选项

  1.划分词性。将15个单词根据尾缀划分为四组单词。

  v. A. assisted B. collaborating E. creating K. intended N. restricted

  O. sum

  n. C. consequence D. consumers F. detail I. inhabitants J. innovation M. pollutants O. sum

  a. G. domestic L. outdoor N. restricted

  ad. H. frequently

  2.判断主旨。本篇文章节选自《经济学人》,主题与环境污染相关。关于主题的判断可根据文章的名词重点捕捉,而无需探究每一个词的含义。

  3.判断词性与形式。这部分主要结合出题人在设计此类题型时,常用的句式,记住并套用即可。词的形式主要针对的是动词和名词,当判断出词性后,需要判断动词的词性、名词的单复数。

  4.带入选项。这一步在备选选项大于一个时较难,因为需要考生结合文章的逻辑,选择符合文意的单词,考察学生的词汇量。

  下面将根据具体的题目,将3、4 步进行说明。

  答案:

  26. M. pollutants

  本题考察的of 前后设空的情况,在四级考试中,我们需要选择一个名词,既然是名词,单复数的情况就必须被考虑,由于of 前的名词levels为复数名词,于是备选选项为D、I、M。根据空缺的前文提到的smog 烟雾以及后文出现的haze 霾,可以判断与污染有关,于是选择了“pollutants 污染物”。

  27. N. restricted.

  本题考查了出题人常用的经典句式中的“n__prep+n”于是应该考虑填写动词,动词需要考虑时态,这句话可以判断出时动词的被动用法,于是根据空缺后的方位词,以及后一句的“central valley”,可以判断出,空气污染不仅是在南部,还在中心山谷一带,于是选则符合文意的restricted限制,或通过固定搭配“be restricted to 仅限于 ”也可解出该题。

  28. C. consequence.

  本题考查出题人常用的经典句式中,冠词后设空的情况。冠词a 后设空,考虑填写名词,并且是单数名词,这时备选选项有 C、F、J 。根据空缺的前文可得知,居民的心脏和肺被影响,这是污染造成的结果,于是选择 “consequence 结果”。

  29. J. innovation.

  本题考查形容词修饰名词的情况,空缺前为形容词,所以后跟名词。于是通过空后的makes, 可以判断为单数名词,备选选项有F、J。根据文意,科技革新更加贴切,于是选择“innovation 革新,创新”。

  30. F. detail.

  本题考查介词后设空的情况,在in后设空,并且所在句子成分完整,根据前文的monitor为动词,所以考虑填写表示修饰的状语,于是选择detail,因为“in detail 详细地”。

  31. K. intented

  本题考查的是出题人常用的句式“be__prep”需要填写v-ing/v-ed,于是备选选项有A、B、E、K。根据前文中它们一直在尝试检测以及后文以获得每分每秒的空气污染情况可以排段,它们一直尝试检测的意图是为了获得每分每秒的空气污染状况。于是“intended 打算、旨在”符合文意。

  32. L. outdoor

  本题考查的是名词前设空的情况,应填入修饰名词的形容词。备选选项有G、L。根据后文提到的,它同时可以关注到建筑物内部“inside building”,于是与它相对应的应为“outdoor户外的 室外的”。

  33. B. collaborating

  本题考查的是出题人常用的句式“be__prep”需要填写v-ing/v-ed,由于空前为been ,于是应填写v-ing形式的单词,备选选项有B、E。根据文意“collaborating 合作”更符合文意,并且与with 构成固定搭配 “be collaborating with 与…合作”。

  34. I. inhabitants

  本题考查的是单数名词所有格后设空的情况,应该填写名词,由于空缺后为“were”,所以应选择复数名词,备选选项有D、I。根据上下文,城市的“inhabitants居民“更符合文意。

  35. E. creating

  本题考查的是常用句式“by+doing”,于是选择v-ing形式。由于上文的选择,本题不重选,于是将最后一个待选选项 “creating 创造”选入该题作为答案。

  Section C

  传统阅读一般考查两部分内容:整体内容、局部内容。答案的设置有两种形式:对应文章内容的明示信息、对应文章内容的暗示信息。基于此,我们在做题过程中,主要做好两件事,第一,定位。第二,对比选项与文章相应内容。在定位的过程中,首先,找准定位需要按照顺序原则进行,其次,要充分还原题干里的信息,最重要的是在定位过程中关注同义替换以及表示逻辑关系的词。对比选项的时候除了对比正确选项与文中定位位置内容相同的部分,我们做题时也会用到排除法,排除错误选项。

  You probably know about the Titanic, but it was actually just one of three state-of-the art (最先进的) ocean ships back in the day. The Olympic class ships were built by the Harland & Wolff ship makers in Northern Ireland for the White Star Line company. The Olympic class included the Olympic, the Britannic and the Titanic. What you may not know is that the Titanic wasn’t even the flagship of this class. 51.All in all, the Olympic class ships were marvels of sea engineering, but they seemed cursed to suffer disastrous fates.

  The Olympic launched first in 1910, followed by the Titanic in 1911, and lastly the Britannic in 1914. The ships had nine decks, 52.and White Star Line decided to focus on marking them the most luxurious ships on the water.

  Stretching 269.13 meters, the Olympic class ship were wonders of naval technology, and everyone thought that they would continue to be so for quite some time. However, all suffered terrible accidents on the open seas. The Olympic got wrecked before the Titanic did, but it was the only one survive and maintain a successful career of 24 years. The Titanic was the first to sink after famously hitting a huge iceberg in 1912. Following this disaster, the Britannic hit a naval mine in 1916 and subsequently sank as well.

  Each ship was coal-powered by several boilers constantly kept running by exhausted crews below deck. Most recognizable of the ship designs are the ship's smoke stacks, 53.but the fourth stack was actually just artistic in nature and served no functional purpose. 54.While two of these ship sank, they were all designed with double hulls (船体) believed to make them "unsinkable", perhaps a mistaken idea that led to the Titanic's and the Britannic's tragic end.

  The Olympic suffered two crashes with other ships and went on to serve as a hospital ship and troop transport in World WarⅠ. 55.Eventually, she was taken out of service in 1935, ending the era of the luxurious Olympic class ocean liners.

  51. What does the passage say about the three Olympic class ships?

  A) They performed marvelously on the sea.

  B) They could all break the ice in their way.

  C) They all experienced terrible misfortunes.

  D) They were models of modern engineering.

  答案:C

  解析:用题干中“three Olympic class ships”定位到第一段,解题位置在第一段最后一句话的转折词之后,意为“但是他们似乎都被诅咒去遭受…”,所以,通过一些字眼就可以判断出这些船都遭受了一些事情,于是C选项符合文意。A选项中performed的动作并未被提及。B选项ice 无中生有。D选项 models 未被提及以及modern 的修饰也没有出现过。

  52. What did White Star line have in mind when it purchased the three ships?

  A) Their capacity of sailing across all waters.

  B) The utmost comfort passengers could enjoy.

  C)Their ability to survive disasters of any kind.

  D)The long voyages they were able to undertake.

  答案:B

  以题干中的大写字母、have in mind以及当他购买了这三艘船的描述,将解体位置定位到第二段最后,White Star决定把它们标记为水上最豪华的船,所以这与豪华有关,与航行能力无关,所以A、C、D都可排除,选择B。

  53. What is said about the fourth stack of the ships?

  A) It was a mere piece of decoration.

  B) It was the work of a famous artist.

  C) It was designed to let out extra smoke.

  D) It was easily identifiable from afar.

  答案:A

  用the fourth stack定位到第四段三到四行“but”之后的内容,通过一些词眼“just artistic”和“no functional purpose”可以判断仅仅是艺术并且没有实际功能,所以A选项说仅仅是装饰作品与文意相符,B选项中famous artist 无中生有。C选项中Extra smoke 无中生有。D选项中的afar 无中生有。

  54. What might have led to the tragic end of the Titanic and the Britannic?

  Their unscientific designs.

  Their captains’ misjudgment.

  The assumption that they were built with the latest technology.

  The belied that they could never sink with a double-layer body.

  答案:D

  根据题干里的信息,是什么导致了“the tragic end of the Titanic and the Britannic”,可定位到第四段最后一句话,可知“mistaken idea”导致了这个悲剧,具体的mistaken idea与D选项的内容相符。A、B、C均有无中生有的特征。

  解析:通过题干中的信息定位到第四段最后一句话。

  55. What happened to the ship Olympic in the end?

  She was used to carry troops.

  She was sunk in World War I.

  She was converted in to a hospital ship.

  She was retired after her naval service.

  答案:D

  通过in the end 定位到全文最后一段的“eventually,she was taken out of service in 1935,…”,在这之前它“went on to serve as a hospital ship and troop transport in World WarⅠ”,所以说D选项她在服务海军之后退休了,符合文意。A、B 无中生有,C并非最后的结果。

  46.Living in an urban area with green spaces has a long-lasting positive impact on people’s mental well-being, a study has suggested, UK researchers found moving to a green space had a sustained positive effect, unlike pay rises or promotions, which only provided a short –term boost. Co-author Mathew White, from the University of Exeter, UK, explained that the study showed people living in greener urban areas were displaying fewer signs of depression or anxiety. “There could be a number of reasons.” he said, “for example,47. people do many things to make themselves happier; they strive for promotion or pay rises, or they get married. But the trouble with those things is that within six months to a year, people are back to their original baseline levels of well-being. So, these things are not sustainable; they don’t make us happy in the long term. We found that for some lottery (彩票) winners who had won more than £500,000 the positive effect was definitely there, but after six months to a year, they were back to the baseline.”

  Dr. White said his team wanted 48.to see whether living in greener urban areas has a lasting positive effect on people’s sense of well-being or whether the effect also disappeared after a period of time. To do this, the team used data from the British Household Panel Survey compiled by University of Essex.

  Explaining what the data revealed, he said: “what you see is that even after three years, mental health is still better, which is unlike many other things that we think will make us happy.” 49.He observed that people living in green spaces were less stressed, and less mm sensible decisions and communicated better.

  With a growing body of evidence establishing a link between urban green spaces and a positive impact on human well-being. Dr. White said, “There’s growing interest among 50.public policy officials, but the trouble is who funds it. What we really need at a policy level is to decide where the money will come from to help support good quality local green spaces.”

  46. According to one study, what do green spaces do to people?

  A) Improve their work efficiency.

  B) Add to their sustained happiness.

  C) Help them build a positive attitude towards life.

  D) Lesson their concerns about material well-being.

  答案:B

  通过题干在一项研究中发现“green spaces”为人们做了什么,可将题目定位到第一段第一句,通过一些词眼就可判断正确选项,定位句中出现的“last-long”、“sustained”都表示长期,并且与这些词搭配出现的是对人们的精神幸福的正面影响,所以选择B选项。A、D无中生有。C文中并未提及建立或生活的词眼。

  47. What does Dr. White say people usually do to make themselves happier?

  A) Earn more money. C) Gain fame and popularity.

  B) Settle in an urban area. D) Live in a green environment.

  答案:A

  解析:通过题干中出现的人们经常会选择是自己开心的做法,定位到第一段第七行到第八行。里面提到人们的做法有升职、涨薪以及结婚。于是跟文意相符的只有A挣更多的钱相符,其他均未提及。

  48. What does Dr. White try to find out about living in a greener urban area?

  A) How it affects different people.

  C) How long its positive effect lasts.

  B) How strong its positive effect is.

  D) How it benefits people physically.

  答案:C

  解析:根据题干中“living in a greener urban area”定位到第二段第一行到第三行,大致内容是在说人们的幸福感是长期(last-long)还是短期(a period of time),所以时候关时间长短的,于是C选项符合文意。其他均为提及。

  49. What did Dr. White research reveal about people living in a green environment?

  A) Their stress was more apparent than real.

  B) Their decisions required less deliberation.

  C) Their memories were greatly strengthened.

  D) Their communication with others improved.

  答案:D

  解析:通过题干中 “research revel”、“people living in a green environment”,定位到第三段最后一句话,“observe”替换了“reveal”,定位句在说这些人压力小并且交流沟通更好,所以D选项与他人交流得到提升符合文意。A选项与文意相反。B、C均为提及。

  50. According to Dr. White, what should the government do to build more green spaces in cities?

  A) Find financial support.

  B) Improve urban planning.

  C) Involve local residents in the effort.

  D) Raise public awareness of the issue.

  答案:A

  解析:利用题干,定位到全文最后一段第二句话。“the government”被“the public policy officials”所替换,答案在转折词but之后,困难是谁来资助。于是答案就是A选项寻找资金支持。B、C、D均无关。

  Losing your ability to think and remember is pretty scary. We know the risk of dementia (痴呆) increases with age. 46.But if you have memory slips, you probably needn’t worry. There are pretty clear differences between signs of dementia and age-related memory loss.

  After age 50, it’s quite common to have trouble remembering the names of people, places and thing quickly, says Dr. Kirk Daffner of Brigham and Woman’s Hospital in Boston.

  The brain ages just like the rest of the body. 47.Certain parts shrink, especially areas in the brain that are important to learning, memory and planning. Changes in brain cells can affect communication between different regions of the brain. And blood flow can be reduced as blood vessels narrow.

  Forgetting the name of an actor in a favorite movie, for example, is nothing to worry about. But if you forget the plot of the movie or don’t remember even seeing it, that’s far more concerning, Daffner says.

  48.When you forget entire experiences, he says, that’s “a red flag that something more serious may be involved.” Forgetting how to operate a familiar object like a microwave oven, or forgetting how to drive to the house of a friend you’ve visited many times before can also be signs of something going wrong.

  But even then, Daffner says, people shouldn’t panic. There are many things that can cause confusion and memory loss, including health problems like temporary stoppage of mmmm… 49.Defense against memory loss is to try to prevent it by building up your brain’s cognitive (认知的) reserve, Daffner says.

  “Read books, go to movies, take on new hobbies or activities that force one to think in novel ways,” he says. 50.In other words, keep your brain busy and working. And also get physically active, because exercise is a known brain booster.

  46. Why does the author say that one needn’t be concerned about memory slips?

  A) Not all of them are symptoms of dementia.

  B) They occur only among certain groups of people.

  C) Not all of them are related to one’s age.

  D) They are quite common among fifty-year-olds.

  答案:A

  解析:根据题干中的memory slips 定位到文中第一段的二三句。第二句为定位句,第三句是对定位句的解释说明,痴呆的征兆与老化相关的记忆力减退之间有明显的不同。所以可以判断并不是所有记忆里减退都与痴呆相关。于是A符合文意。B无中生有,C、D偷换概念。

  47. What happens as we become aged according to the passage?

  A) Our interaction skills deteriorate.

  B) Some parts of our brain stop functioning.

  C) Communication within our brain weakens.

  D) Our whole brain starts shrinking.

  答案:C

  通过题干中当我们变老了会发生什么的描述定位到全文第三段的二三句。第二句话句提到大脑一些部分会萎缩,尤其是学习、记忆和计划方面的区域。所以B、D都偷换概念了。第三句话说到了脑细胞的改变会影响大脑不同区域之间的交流。于是A选项也偷换概念。正确选项为C大脑内部的交流弱化。

  48. Which memory-related symptom should people take seriously?

  A) Totally forgetting how to do one’s daily routines.

  B) Inability to recall details of one’s life experiences.

  C) Failure to remember the names of movies or actors.

  D) Occasionally confusing the addresses of one’s friends.

  答案:A

  根据题干中的“take seriously”定位到第五段。第五段整段在论述忘记“entire experience”是要严肃对待的,忘记例如像使用微波炉这种熟悉的操作,或者是忘记了拜访过很多次的朋友家的路线。所以A选项符合文意,totally替换了entire experience,daily routines 概括总结了后文的例证。

  49. What should people do when signs of serious memory loss show up?

  Check the brain’s cognitive reserve. C) Turn to a professional for assistance.

  Stop medications affecting memory. D) Exercise to improve their well-being.

  答案:A

  通过题干中当出现严重的记忆里减退的现象,人们应该怎么“do”, 于是通过题干定位到人们的行为在第六段最后一句话,防止记忆力减退的方式应通过建立大脑的认知储备。于是A选项符合文意。

  49.题的答案参考的是公众号中给出答案,答案未必准确。定位位置前的红色部分实际上是信息的缺失,这部分缺失与解题也许相关,务必选择参考并谨慎使用本题答案!!!

  50. What is Dr Daffner’s advice for combating memory loss?

  A) Having regular physical and mental checkups.

  B) Taking medicine that helps boost one’s brain.

  C) Engaging in known memory repair activities.

  D) Staying active both physically and mentally.

  答案:D

  解析:根据题干中的advice定位到全文最后一段。解题的信息应是对

  Dr Daffner 意见的解释说明,于是全文最后两句话为解题信息,大致意思为保持大脑的运转同时保持身体锻炼。于是D选项符合文意。A选择偷换感念。B、C无中生有。

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