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2018年12月英语六级阅读专练10

2018-08-31 14:21

来源:新东方网整理

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  Culture Shock

  Culture shock is precipitated by the anxiety that results from losing all our familiar signs and symbols of social intercourse. Those signs or cues include the thousand and one ways in which we orient ourselves to the situation of daily life ; when to shake hands and what to say when we meet people, when and how to give tips, how to make purchases, when to accept and when to refuse invitations, when to take statements seriously and when not. These cues, which may be words, gestures, facial expressions, customs, or norms, are acquired by all of us in the course of growing up and are as much a part of our culture as the language we speak or the beliefs we accept. All of us depend for our peace of mind and our efficiency on hundreds of these cues, most of which we do not carry on the level of conscious awareness.

  Now when an individual enters a strange culture, all or most of these familiar cues are removed. He or she is like a fish out of water. No matter how broad-minded or full of good will you may be, a series of props have been knocked from under you, followed by a feeling of frustration and anxiety. People react to the frustration in much the same way. First they reject the environment which causes the discomfort.“The ways of the host country are bad because they make us feel bad. ”When foreigners in a strange land get together to grouse about the host country and its people, you can be sure they are suffering from culture shock. Another phase of culture shock is regression. The home environment suddenly assumes a tremendous importance. To the foreigner everything becomes irrationally glorified. All the difficulties and problems are forgotten and only the good things back home are remembered. It usually takes a trip home to bring one back to reality.

  Some of the symptoms of culture shock are excessive washing of the hands, excessive concern over drinking water, food dishes, and bedding; fear of physical contact with attendants, the absent-minded stare; a feeling of helplessness and a desire for dependence on long-term residents of one’s own nationality; fits of anger over minor frustrations; great concern over minor pains and eruptions of the skin; and finally, that terrible longing to be back home.

  阅读自测

  Ⅰ. Replace the underlined words with the phrases in the passage with the same meaning:

  1 . Culture shock is caused by the anxiety that results from losing all our familiar signs and symbols of social intercourse .

  2 . Those signs and cues include a lot of ways in which we act.

  3 . Entering a new company with no friends help him, he feels uncomfortable.

  4 . Although living abroad for 5 years, she still feels homesick now and then.

  Ⅱ. Question :

  What are the symptoms of culture shock?

  参考答案

  Ⅰ.

  1. precipitated 2. the thousand and one 3. like a fish out of water 4 . longing to be back home

  Ⅱ.

  some of the symptoms of culture shock are excessive washing of the hands, excessive 033 concern over drinking water, food dishes, and bedding; fear of physical contact with attendants, the absent-minded stare; a feeling of helplessness and a desire for dependence on long-term residents of one’s own nationality; fits of anger over minor frustrations; great concern over minor pains and eruptions of the skin; and finally, that terrible longing to be back home .

  参考译文

  文化冲击

  文化冲击现象源自焦虑, 焦虑的原因是我们找不到熟悉的社会标志及特征。这些标志或暗示包含了许多引导我们适应日常生活的方法: 什么时候握手, 与人见面时该说什么话, 什么时候及怎样给小费, 如何购物, 什么时候接受邀请, 什么时候拒绝邀请, 什么话需要严肃对待, 什么话不需要。这些暗示可以是话语、手势、面部表情、风俗或者行为准则, 它们都是我们在成长的过程中获得的, 就像我们所说的语言或接受的信仰那样, 成为我们的文化的组成部分。为了使心态平和, 工作高效, 我们大家都依赖于无数个这样的暗示, 其中大多数的暗示都不是我们有意识地进行传达的。

  现在,当一个人进入了ta所不熟悉的文化环境中时,ta所熟悉的全部或大部分暗示都被移除了。ta就像一条离开了水的鱼。无论你的思想有多开放或有多少善意,可以支撑你的乐观精神的一系列东西都被踢走了,随之而来的是沮丧和焦躁。人们应对这种沮丧的方法大致相同。首先他们会拒绝这种给他们带来不适的环境,“这个国家不好因为它让我们感到不好”。当一群在陌生土地的外国人聚在一起抱怨这个国家和它的人民的时候,你可以确信他们正在受到文化冲击的折磨。经受文化冲击的另一个阶段是思乡。故国环境突然都拥有了巨大的重要性,在一个外国人看来祖国的一切都不合理的美好,祖国的一切困难和问题都被他们遗忘了,只有好的东西留在了记忆里。这种情况通常要回一趟家才能把人拉回现实。

  还有一些文化冲击的症状,比如说过度洗手,过度关注饮用水、餐盘和床上用品;害怕同人肢体接触和无意识地凝视;无助感和对同国籍的长期居住者的依赖渴望;对于小事的过度愤怒;对轻微疼痛和皮肤问题的过度担忧;以及最后,不健康的想要回家的渴望。

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