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新东方网>大学教育>四六级>真题解析>四级解析>正文

2020年12月四级阅读部分解析(郑州新东方)

2020-12-14 16:10

来源:四六级真题解析专题

作者:蔡晶晶

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  【试题】

  When my son completes a task. I can’t help but praise him. It’s only natural to give praise where praise is due, right? But is there such a thing as too much praise?

  According to psychologist Katherine Phillip, children don’t benefit from 26 praise as much as we’d like to think. “Parents often praise, believing they are building their child’s self-confidence. However, over-praising can have a 27 effect,” says Phillip. “When we use the same praise 28 , it may become empty and no longer valued by the child. It can also become an expectation that anything they do must be 29 with praise. This may lead to the child avoiding taking risks due to fear of 30 their parents.”

  Does this mean we should do away with all the praise? Phillip says no. “The key to healthy praise is to focus on the process rather than the 31 . It is the recognition of a child’s attempt, or the process in which they achieved something, that is essential,” she says. “Parents should encourage their child to take the risks needed to learn and grow.”

  So how do we break the 32 of praise we’re all so accustomed to? Phillip says it’s important to 33 between “person praise” and “process praise”. “Person praise is 34 saying how great someone is. It’s a form of personal approval. Process praise is acknowledgement of the efforts the person has just 35 . Children who receive person praise are more likely to feel shame after losing,” says Phillip.

  A) choose I) pattern

  B) constant J) plural

  C) disappointing K) repeatedly

  D) distinguish L) rewarded

  E) exhausting M) separately

  F) experienced N) simply

  G) negative O) undertaken

  H) outcome

  【解析】

  总体分析:

  本次阅读考试Section A部分难度一般,文本内容简单,选词填空上下文线索明显,且考察的多为高频词汇,重点考察学生对于文本和词句的理解。

  名词:I) pattern J) plural H) outcome

  形容词:B) constant C) disappointing E) exhausting F) experienced G) negative J) plural L) rewarded O) undertaken

  动词:A) choose D) distinguish C) disappointing E) exhausting F) experienced L) rewarded O) undertaken

  副词:K) repeatedly N) simply

  26. B

  根据挖空位置前面介词from,后面名词praise可以得知空格处为adj.词性。再根据本句话的含义可知“并不受益于.....的赞扬”,可以从备选的形容词性中选出B,constant表示经常的含义。

  27. G

  根据挖空的位置前面冠词a和后面名词effect,可知空格处为形容词词性。再结合句子表示转折的意思:“然而,过多的赞扬会有.....的效果”,可知为表示负面含义的形容词。所以从备选的形容词中可以选出G项,negative是消极的意思。

  28. K

  根据挖空的位置,前面是完整的句子结构,动词+形容词+名词,可得知应填副词词性。根据后句的含义:会不再被孩子们在意,可知为“反复地”含义,应选K项repeatedly。

  29. L

  根据挖空的位置,must be可知此处应为动词的过去分词形式,从备选的三个词 F) experienced L) rewarded O) undertaken中,意思最合适的为“用赞扬去奖励”,所以可知答案为L项,rewarded。

  30. C

  根据挖空的位置,前面是of介词,可知后面为名词或者动名词形式。再结合意思,孩子们避免去冒险,因为害怕.....父母,可知意思为“让父母失望,因此C项disappointing为正确选项。

  31. H

  根据本句话:......the process rather than the,语法结构上,rather than 前后的词性是一致的,因此可知此处应为名词。再结合意思,“过程对比结果”,可知答案为H项outcome。

  32. I

  根据空格的位置: the 32 of ,可知为名词。从备选的3个名词之中选择,再结合意思是“打破”,所以可知为“固有的形式之意”,因此答案为I项pattern。

  33. D

  根据挖空的位置,前面是to +动词原形,所以备选中只有choose和distinguish,结合意思是对个人表扬和过程表扬的两者,所以应填入“区别”的意思。故选择D项distinguish。

  34. N

  根据位置:Person praise is 34 saying.....,从语法结构上可以判断,应该是adv.+V.的结构,本题仅有两个副词,已经使用一个,只能选择最后的一个simply。

  35. O

  根据时态上:has just....,可知使用了现在完成时,所以从动词的过去分词中去选择,29题已经使用过一个词,只剩下O和F,根据句意“过程表扬是对人所做努力的肯定”,所以选O项undertaken表示“从事,进行”。

  Section B

  Poverty is a story about us, not them

  [A] Too often still, we think we know the poverty looks like. It’s the way we’ve been taught, the images we’ve been forced-fed decades. The chronically homeless. The undocumented immigrant. The urban poor, usually personified as a woman of color, the “welfare queen” politicians still too often reference.

  [B] But as income inequality rises to record levels in the United States, even in the midst of a record economic expansions, those familiar images are outdated, hurtful and counterproductive to focusing attention on solutions and building ladders of opportunity.

  [C] Today’s faces of inequality and lack of opportunity look like all of us. It’s Anna Landre, a disabled Georgetown University student fighting to keep health benefits that allow her the freedom to live her life. It’s Tiffanie Standard, a counselor for young women of color in Philadelphia who want to be tech entrepreneurs — but who must work multiple jobs to stay afloat. It’s Ken Outlaw, a welder in rural North Carolina whose dream of going back to school at a local community college was dashed by Hurricane Florence — just one of the extreme weather events that have tipped the balance for struggling Americans across the nation.

  [D] If these are the central characters of our story about poverty, what layers of perceptions, myths, and realities must we unearth to find meaningful solutions and support? In pursuit of revealing this complicated reality, Mothering Justice, led by women of color, went last year to the state capital in Lansing, Michigan, to lobby on issues that affect working mothers. One of the Mothering Justice organizers went to the office of a state representative to talk about the lack of affordable childcare — the vestiges(痕迹)) of a system that expected mothers to stay home with their children while their husbands worked. A legislative staffer dismissed the activist’s concerns, telling her “my husband took care of that — I stayed home.”

  [E] That comment, says Mothering Justice director Danielle Atkinson, “was meant to shame” and relied on the familiar trope that a woman of color concerned about income inequality and programs that promote mobility must by definition be a single mom, probably with multiple kids. In this case, Mothering Justice activist happened to be married. And in most cases in the America of 2019, the images that come to mind when we hear the words poverty or income inequality fail miserably in reflecting a complicated reality: poverty touches virtually all of us. The face of income inequality, for all but a very few of us, is the one we each see in the mirror.

  [F] How many of us are poor in the U.S.? It depends on who you ask. According to the Census Bureau, 38 million people in the U.S. are living below the official poverty thresholds. Taking into account economic need beyond that absolute measure, the Institute for Policy Studies found that 140 million people are poor or low-income. That’s almost half the U.S. population.

  [G] Whatever the measure, within that massive group, poverty is extremely diverse. We know that some people are more affected than others, like children, the elderly, people with disabilities, and people of color.

  [H] But the fact that 4 in 10 Americans can’t come up with $400 in an emergency is a commonly cited statistic for good reason: economic instability stretches across race, gender, and geography. It even reaches into the middle classes, as real wages have stagnated (不增长) for all but the very wealthy and temporary spells of financial instability are not uncommon.

  [I] Negative images remain of who is living in poverty as well as what is needed to move out of it. The big American myth is that you can pull yourself up by your own effort and change a bad situation into a good one. The reality is that finding opportunity without help from families, friends, schools, and community is virtually impossible. And the playing field is nothing close to level.

  [J] The FrameWorks Institute, a research group that focuses on public framing of issues, has studied what sustains stereotypes and narratives of poverty in the United Kingdom. “People view economic success and wellbeing in life as a product of choice, willpower, drive, grit, and gumption,” says Nat Kendall-Taylor, CEO of Frame Works. “When we see people who are struggling,” he says, those assumptions “lead us to the perception that people in poverty are lazy, they don’t care, and they haven’t made the right decisions.”

  [K] Does this sound familiar? Similar ideas surround poverty in the U.S. And these assumptions wreak havoc on reality. “When people enter into that pattern of thinking,” says Kendall-Taylor, “it’s cognitively comfortable to make sense of issues of poverty in that way. It creates a kind of cognitive blindness — all of the factors external to a person’s drive and choices that they’ve made become invisible and fade from view.”

  [L] Those external factors include the difficulties accompanying low-wage work ot structual discrimination based on race, gender, or ability. Assumptions get worse when people who are poor use government benefits to help them survive. There is a great tension between “the poor” and those who are receiving what has become a dirty word: “welfare.”

  [M] According to the General Social Survey, 71 percent of respondents believe the country is spending too little on a”welfare”: 37 percent believe we are spending too much.

  [N] “Poverty has been interchangeable with people of color -- specifically black women and black mothers,” says Atkinson of Mothering Justice. It’s true that black mothers are more affected by poverty than many other groups, yet they are disproportionately the face of poverty. For example, Americans routinely overestimate the share of black recipients of public assistance programs.

  [O] In reality, most people will experience some form of financial hardship at some point in their lives. Indeed, people tend to dip in and out of poverty, perhaps due to unexpected obstacles like losing a job, or when hours of a low-wage job fluctuate.

  [P] Something each of us can do is to treat each other with the dignity and sympathy that is deserved and to understand deeply that the issue of poverty touches all of us.

  36.One legislative staffer assumed that a woman of color who advocated affordable childcare must be a single mother.

  37.People from different races, genders, and regions all suffer from a lack of financial security.

  38.According to a survey, while the majority believe too little assistance is given to the poor, more than a third believe too much is spent on welfare.

  39.A research group has found that Americans who are struggling are thought to be lazy and to have made the wrong decisions.

  40.Under the old system in America, a mother was supposed to stay home and take care of her children.

  41….found that nearly 50% of Americans are poor or receive low pay.

  42. American usually overestimate the number of blacks receiving welfare benefits.

  43. It is impossible for Americans to lift themselves out of poverty entirely on their owns.

  44. Nowadays, it seems none of us can get away from income inequality.

  45. Assumptions about poor people become even more negative when they live on welfare.

  【解析】

  总体分析:

  本次阅读考试段落匹配题难度与上次考试持平,文章较长,该题考查的是考生的查读和扫读能力,牢记找题干关键词的方法论及常考的同义替换方法。

  36. E.

  根据快速阅读段落的规律,应先读首尾端。E段首句中that a woman of color concerned about income inequality and programs that promote mobility must by definition be a single mom, 对应题目中that a woman of color who advocated affordable childcare must be a single mother.

  37. H.

  H段中economic instability stretches across race, gender, and geography. 为答案选择的根据,题干中financial security是对economic instability的同义替换。races, genders, and regions 则是对段中race, gender, and geography的替换。

  38. M.

  M段中的71 percent of respondents believe the country is spending too little on a”welfare”: 37 percent believe we are spending too much.是对应题干中的同义改写: the majority 对应71 percent of respondents;more than a third对应37 percent。注意有关数字的细节是常考点,而且一定要注意对数字的改写。

  39. J.

  J段中“When we see people who are struggling,” he says, those assumptions “lead us to the perception that people in poverty are lazy, they don’t care, and they haven’t made the right decisions.”对应句中who are struggling are thought to be lazy and to have made the wrong decisions. 基本是原词,很容易定位。

  40. D.

  D段中最后一句中的the vestiges(痕迹)) of a system that expected mothers to stay home with their children while their husbands worked. 对应句中a mother was supposed to stay home and take care of her children.

  41. F.

  F段中the Institute for Policy Studies found that 140 million people are poor or low-income. That’s almost half the U.S. population. 对应句子中的nearly 50% of Americans are poor or receive low pay.尤其是出现了数字的统一替换:almost half 对应nearly 50%。

  42. N.

  N段中的最后一句For example, Americans routinely overestimate the share of black recipients of public assistance programs.对应到了句中的overestimate the number of blacks receiving welfare benefits的动宾短语含义。

  43. I.

  I段中倒数第二句,The reality is that finding opportunity without help from families, friends, schools, and community is virtually impossible.原词对应句中impossible; on their owns同义替换without help from families, friends, schools, and community。

  44. C.

  C段中的首句:Today’s faces of inequality and lack of opportunity look like all of us.同义替换it seems none of us can get away from income inequality. all of us 和none of us can get away from 同义替换。

  45. L.

  L段中间句:Assumptions get worse when people who are poor use government benefits to help them survive. get worse对应even more negative;use government benefits to help them survive对应when they live on welfare.

  Section C

  【试题】

  Boredom has, paradoxically, become quite interesting to academics lately. In early May, London’s Boring Conference celebrated seven years of delighting in dullness. At this event, people flocked to talks about weather, traffic jams and vending-machine sounds, among other sleep-inducing topics.

  What, exactly, is everybody studying? One widely accepted definition of boredom is "the distasteful experience of wanting, but being unable to engage in satisfying activity.” But how can you quantify a person's boredom level and compare it with someone else’s? In 1986, psychologists introduced the Boredom Proneness Scale, designed to measure an individual’s overall tendency to feel bored. By contrast, the Multidimensional State Boredom scale, developed in 2008, measures a person's felings of boredom in a given situation.

  Boredom has been linked to behavior issues including inattentive driving, mindless snacking, excessive drinking, and addictive gambling. In fact, many of us would choose pain over boredom. One team of psychologists discovered that two-thirds of men and a quarter of women would rather self-administer electric shocks than sit alone with their thoughts for 15 minutes. Researching this phenomenon, another team asked volunteers to watch boring, sad, or neutar films, during which they could self-administer elecric shocks. The bored volunteers shocked themselves more and harder than the sad or neutral ones did.

  But boredom isn't all bad. By encouraging self-reflection and daydreaming, it can spur activity. An early study gave participants abundant time to complete problem-solving and word-association exercises. Once all the obvious answers were exhausted, participants gave more and more incentive answers to combat boredom. A British study took these findings one step further, asking subjects to complete a creative challenge (coming up with a list of alternative uses for a household item). One group of subjects did a boring activity first, while the others went straight to the creative task. Those whose boredom pumps had been primed were more productive.

  In our always-connected world, boredom may be a hard-to-define state, but it is a fertile one. Watch paint dry or water boil, or at least put away your smart phone for a while, and you might unlock your next big idea.

  46. When are people likely to experience boredom, according to an accepted psychological definition?

  A) When they don’t have the chance to do what they want.

  B) When they don’t enjoy the materials they are studying.

  C) When they experience something unpleasant.

  D) When they engage in some routine activities.

  47. What does the author say boredom can lead to?

  A) Determination

  B) Mental deterioration

  C) Concentration

  D) Harmful conduct

  48. What is the findings of one team of psychologists in their experiment?

  A) Volunteers prefer watching a boring movie to sitting alone deliberating.

  B) Many volunteers choose to hurt themselves rather than endure boredom.

  C) Male volunteers are more immune to the effects of boredom than females.

  D) Many volunteers are unable to resist boredom longer than fifteen minutes.

  49. Why does the author say boredom isn’t all bad?

  A) It stimulates memorization.

  B) It may promote creative thinking.

  C) It allows time for relaxation.

  D) It may facilitate independent learning.

  50. What does the author suggests one do when faced with a challenging problem?

  A) Stop idling and think big.

  B) Unlock one’s smartphone.

  C) Look around oneself for stimulation.

  D) Allow oneself some time to be bored.

  【解析】

  总体解析:仔细阅读部分文章脉络清晰,考题多为细节题,定位准确的情况下整体难度不高,只要考生掌握自然段定位原则以及设题点的准确辨别,也可以轻松解题。

  46. A

  题型:细节题

  解题思路:根据题干定位到第二段,由 One widely accepted definition of boredom is “the distasteful experience of wanting, but being unable to engage in satisfying activity.” 可知,一个被广泛接受的对无聊的定义是“想要却没能得到的令人不快的经历,未能从事令人满意的活动。”,所以选A选项中When they don’t have the chance to do what they want.是对定位句的同义替换。

  干扰选项分析:BCD文中未提到并且不符合文意,所以排除。

  47. D

  题型:细节题

  解题思路:由第三段 “Boredom has been linked to behavior issues including inattentive driving, mindless snacking, excessive drinking, and addictive gambling.” 可知,无聊与粗心驾驶、盲目吃零食、酗酒和上瘾赌博等行为问题有关。所以无聊导致的都是不好的行为,选项D Harmful conduct是对原文的概括改写,因此正确答案为D项。。

  干扰选项分析:A决心C专注度都是好的方面,反向干扰排除;B精神恶化,精神只是其中一方面,以偏概全排除。

  48. B

  题型:细节题

  解题思路:根据题干定位到第三段 “One team of psychologists discovered that two-thirds of men and a quarter of women would rather self-administer electric shocks than sit alone with their thoughts for 15 minutes.” 可知,一个心理学家团队发现,三分之二的男性和四分之一的女性宁愿自己实施电击也不愿独自坐着思考15分钟。所以选B项Many volunteers choose to hurt themselves rather than endure boredom,许多志愿者宁愿选择伤害自己也不想忍受寂寞。

  干扰选项分析:ACD不符合文意,所以排除。

  49. B

  题型:细节题

  解题思路:根据题干定位到第四段 “But boredom isn't all bad. By encouraging self-reflection and daydreaming, it can spur activity.” 可知,但无聊也不全是坏事。通过鼓励自我反省和白日做梦,它可以刺激活动。所以选B项It may promote creative thinking.。

  干扰选项分析:A刺激记忆,这只是下文的一个例子,以偏概全排除;CD文中未提到,所以排除。

  50. D

  题型:推理题

  解题思路:由第四段最后两句 “In our always-connected world, boredom may be a hard-to-define state, but it is a fertile one. Watch paint dry or water boil, or at least put away your smart phone for a while, and you might unlock your next big idea.” 可知,在我们这个始终保持联系的世界里,无聊可能是一种难以定义的状态,但它是一种丰富的状态。看着油漆变干或者水沸腾,或者至少把你的智能手机放一段时间,你可能会开启你的下一个伟大的想法。所以选D 项Allow oneself some time to be bored.。

  干扰选项分析:ABC不符合文意,所以排除。

  Forests in countries like Brazil and the Congo get a lot of attention from environmentalists, and it is easy to see why. South America and sub-Saharan Africa are experiencing deforestation on an enormous scale: every year almost 5 million hectares are lost. But forests are also changing in rich Western countries. They are growing larger, both in the sense that they occupy more and that the trees in them and bigger. What is going on?

  Forests are spreading in almost all Western countries, with fastest growth in places that historically had rather few tress. In 1990 28% of Spain was forested; now the proportion is 37%. In both Greece and Italy, the growth was from 26% to 32% over the same period. Forests are gradually taking more and in America and Australia. Perhaps most astonishing is the trend in Ireland. Roughly 1% of that country was forested when it became independent in 1922. Forests cover 11% of the land, and the government wants to push the proportion to 18% by the 2040s.

  Two things are fertilising this growth. The first is the abandonment of farmland, especially in high, dry places where nothing grows terribly well. When farmers give up trying to earn a living from farming or herding trees simply move in. The second is government policy and subsidy. Throughout history, governments have protected and promoted forests for diverse reasons, ranging from the need for wooden warships to a desire to promote suburban house-building. Nowadays forests are increasingly welcome because they suck in carbon pollution from the air. The justifications change; the desire for more trees remains constant.

  The greening of the West does not delight everyone. Farmers complain that land is being taken out of use by generously subsidised tree plantations. Parts of Spain and Portugal suffer from terrible forest fires. Others simply dislike the appearance of forests planted in neat rows. They will have to get used to the trees, however. The growth of Western forests seems almost as unstoppable as deforestation elsewhere.

  51. What is catching environmentalists’ attention nowadays?

  A) Rich countries are stripping poor ones of their resources.

  B) Forests are fast shrinking in many developing countries.

  C) Forests are eating away the fertile farmland worldwide.

  D) Rich countries are doing little to address deforestation.

  52. Which countries have the fastest forest growth?

  A) Those that have newly achieved independence.

  B) Those that at have the greatest demand for timber

  C) Those that used to have the lowest forest coverage.

  D) Those that provide enormous government subsidies.

  53. What has encouraged forest growth historically?

  A) The government’s advocacy.

  B) The use of wood for fuel.

  C) The favorable climate.

  D) The green movement.

  54. What account for our increasing desire for forests?

  A) Their unique scenic beauty.

  B) Their use as fruit plantation.

  C) Their capability of improving air quality.

  D) Their stable supply of building materials.

  55. What does the author conclude about the prospects of forestation?

  A) Deserts in sub-Saharan Africa will diminish gradually.

  B) It will play a more and more important role in people’s lives.

  C) Forest destruction in the developing world will quickly slow down.

  D) Developed and developing countries are moving in opposite direction.

  【解析】

  51. B

  题型:细节题

  解题思路:根据定位词定位到第一段第二句South America and sub-Saharan Africa are experiencing deforestation on an enormous scale: every year almost 5 million hectares are lost. 对应B项中的 Forests are fast shrinking in many developing countries. 其中lost和shrink同义替换,South America and sub-Saharan Africa 对应developing countries.

  ACD选项不符合文意,故排除。

  52. C

  题型:细节题

  解题思路:根据题干定位词fastest forest growth定位到第二段第一句,Forests are spreading in almost all Western countries, with fastest growth in places that historically had rather few trees. 其中historically 对应used to,had rather few trees对应the lowest forest coverage。因此C项Those that used to have the lowest forest coverage.是正确答案。

  53. A

  题型:细节题

  解题思路:根据题干的定位词可以定位到第三段第一句:Two things are fertilising this growth. 定位句的下句出答案,可知段中提到两个原因:The first is the abandonment of farmland;The second is government policy and subsidy. 结合选项,A项The government’s advocacy.对应第二个原因,故选择A项。

  54. C

  题型:细节题

  解题思路:根据题干可以定位到第三段倒数第三句 a desire to promote suburban house-building.为定位句,但是结合选项没有对应选项。本题下句出答案,.....because they suck in carbon pollution from the air.提到环境污染,对应选项中的C中improving air quality

  55. D

  题型:推理题

  解题思路:本题的关键词只有 prospects of forestation,并且根据conclude可知是推理题。所以通读最后一段的文章,根据最后一句however. The growth of Western forests seems almost as unstoppable as deforestation elsewhere.其中Western forests对应developed,再根据一个是西方森林的增加是unstoppable,另一个是其他地方为deforestation,森林砍伐,可知两者是相反的,故符合D中的opposite direction。因此D项Developed and developing countries are moving in opposite direction是正确答案。

  ABC选项无法从文中推理得出。故排除。

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