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新东方网>大学教育>四六级>真题解析>四级解析>正文

2020年12月四级试卷阅读理解解析 (郑州新东方)

2020-12-14 16:12

来源:四六级真题解析专题

作者:张凯

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  选词填空

  选词填空的整体难度不大,遵循先划分词性,再根据空格前后判断空格处所填词的词性,缩小选词范围,达到三选一或者二选一,保证做题速度,提升做题正确率。

  26. B constant

  解题思路:26空前是动词词组benefit from,空格后是名词praise,空格处需要填形容词,本句后在讲often praise,经常…,所以空格处应该填一个表示“经常的”形容词,B项constant,意思是“持续的”,符合题意。

  27. G negative

  解题思路:27空格前是冠词a, 空格后是名词effect,所以空格处需要填一个形容词,结合本句开头是however,和前一句转折关系,前一句在讲self-confidence自信,表示积极的意思,所以空格处需填和积极的相反的形容词,G项 negative,意思是“消极的”,符合题意。

  28. K repeatedly

  解题思路:空格前句子结构完整,所以空格处可以填副词,再结合意思,K项repeatedly表示“重复地”更符合题意,本句意思为“当我们重复使用同样的表扬时”。

  29. L rewarded

  解题思路:29空前是must be,空格后是介词短语with praise,所以空格处需填动词过去分词,和must be构成“情态动词+be done”的结构,符合语法结构的是L项rewarded和O项undertaken,再结合意思,L项rewarded更符合题意。

  30. C disappointing

  解题思路:30空前是介词of, 空格后是名词their parents,空格处可填动名词,构成fear of doing结构,”害怕做某事”,C项disappointing和E项exhausting符合,再结合意思,C项disappointing意思是“令人失望的”更符合题意。

  31. H outcome

  解题思路:31空前是the,空格处需要填一个名词,本句才完整。结合意思,“过程对比结果”,H项outcome和I项pattern中,结合意思可知,H项outcome更符合题意32. I pattern

  解题思路:32空前是the, 空格后是of praise,构成the n. of n. 结构,再结合意思是“打破”,所以可知为“固有的形式之意”,因此答案为I项pattern。

  33. D distinguish

  解题思路:33空前是it’s important to, it 作形式主语,后面的to do作真正的主语,因此空格处需填一个动词原形,A项choose和D项distinguish符合,再结合意思是对个人表扬和过程表扬的两者,因此D项distinguish更符合。

  34. N simply

  解题思路:34空前是is,空后是saying,整个句子结构完整,因此空格处需填副词,M项separately和N项simply符合,再结合意思,N项simply更符合。

  35. O undertaken

  解题思路:35空前是has just,该句谓语动词不完整,空格处需填过去分词,和空格前的has构成have done结构,再结合句意“过程表扬是对人所做努力的肯定”, O项undertaken符合题意。

  信息匹配

  信息匹配题整体难度不大,基本解题思路是先浏览36-45句话,划出关键词,然后利用关键词定位,基本都是原词复现,考察的是学生的定位能力。

  36. E. One legislative staffer assumed that a woman of color who advocated affordable childcare must be a single mother.

  解题思路:其中 a woman of color和 a single mother和E段原词复现。

  37. H. People from different races, genders, and regions all suffer from a lack of financial security.

  解题思路:其中 races, genders, and regions,financial security和H段原词复现。

  38. M. According to a survey, while the majority believe too little assistance is given to the poor, more than a third believe too much is spent on welfare.

  解题思路:其中,According to a survey, too little, too much,welfare与M段原词复现, the majority和M段中的71 percent, more than a third与M段中的37 percent属于同义替换。

  39. J. A research group has found that Americans who are struggling are thought to be lazy as they have made the wrong decisions.

  解题思路:其中, A research group, lazy,made the wrong decisions与J段原词复现。

  40. D. Under the old system in American, a mother was supposed to stay home and take care of her children.

  解题思路:其中, mother, stay home,children与D段原词复现。

  41. F. … found that nearly 50% of Americans are poor or receive low pay.

  解题思路:其中, poor,low pay与F段原词复现, nearly 50% of Americans和F段中的half the U.S. population同义替换。

  42. N. Americans usually overestimate the number of blacks receiving welfare benefits.

  解题思路:其中, Americans, overestimate, blacks与N段原词复现, usually和routinely, number和share,属于同义替换。

  43. I. It is impossible for Americans to lift themselves out of poverty entirely on their own.

  解题思路:其中, lift themselves out of poverty 与I段中的pull yourself up, on their own与I段中的by your own, 属于同义替换。

  44. C. Nowadays, it seems none of us can get away from income inequality.

  解题思路:其中, Nowadays和C段中的today,属于同义替换。

  45. L. Assumptions about poor people become even more negative when they live on welfare

  解题思路:其中, Assumptions, poor people 与L段原词复现。

  仔细阅读

  仔细阅读考察的是定位能力,细节题居多,遵循顺序原则,先找题干关键词,然后定位原文,最后对比选项与定位句,正确答案的难度有所上升,同义替换较多,需要学生具备一定的词汇和理解能力。

  46. A) When they don’t have the chance to do what they want.

  题型:细节题

  解题思路:根据题干关键词accepted psychological definition,定位在第二段第二句 One widely accepted definition of boredom is “ the distasteful experience of wanting, but being unable to engage in satisfying activity.” 其中,want原词复现, engage in satisfying activity与选项A的 don’t have the chance同义替换。

  47. D) Harmful conduct

  题型:细节题

  解题思路:根据题干关键词boredom can lead to,定位到第三段第一句 Boredom has been linked to behavior issues including inattentive driving, mindless snacking, excessive drinking, and addictive gambling. 其中,harmful conduct概括改写文中behavior issues including inattentive driving, mindless snacking, excessive drinking, and addictive gambling。

  48. B) Many volunteers choose to hurt themselves rather than endure boredom.

  题型:细节题

  解题思路:根据题干关键词 findings of one team of psychologists,定位到第三段第三句 One team of psychologists discovered that two-thirds of men and a quarter of women would rather self-administer electric shocks than sit alone with their thoughts for 15 minutes. 选项B Many volunteers choose to hurt themselves rather than endure boredom,许多志愿者宁愿选择伤害自己也不想忍受寂寞与定位句同义改写。

  49. B) It may promote creative thinking.

  题型:细节题

  解题思路:题干关键词boredom isn’t all bad,why, 定位到第四段第一句和第二句, But boredom isn't all bad. By encouraging self-reflection and daydreaming, it can spur activity. 其中,promote与定位句的encourage, creative thinking和self-reflection and daydreaming是同义替换。

  50. D) Allow oneself some time to be bored.

  题型:细节题

  解题思路:根据题干关键词 suggests one do when faced with a challenging problem,定位到文中第四段第五、六、七句A British study took these findings one step further, asking subjects to complete a creative challenge (coming up with a list of alternative uses for a household item). One group of subjects did a boring activity first, while the others went straight to the creative task. Those whose boredom pumps had been primed were more productive. 其中,bored原词复现。

  51. B) Forests are fast shrinking in many developing countries.

  题型:细节题

  解题思路: 根据题干关键词catching environmentalists’ attention nowadays,定位到第一段第一、二句 Forests in countries like Brazil and the Congo get a lot of attention from environmentalists, and it is easy to see why. South America and sub-Saharan Africa are experiencing deforestation on an enormous scale: every year almost 5 million hectares are lost. 其中, Forests 原词复现, shrinking 和定位句的 deforestation , many developing countries和定位句的 South America and sub-Saharan Africa 同义替换。第一句说森林吸引专家的注意,第二句说南非正在经历森林退化,句意符合,因此选项B正确。

  52. C) Those that used to have the lowest forest coverage.

  题型:细节题

  解题思路:根据题干关键词fastest forest growth,定位到第二段第一句 Forests are spreading in almost all Western countries, with fastest growth in places that historically had rather few tress. 其中, the lowest forest与定位句的rather few tress是同义替换。

  53. A) The government’s advocacy.

  题型:细节题

  解题思路:根据题干关键词 forest growth,historically,定位到第三段第四、五句 The second is government policy and subsidy. Throughout history, governments have protected and promoted forests for diverse reasons, ranging from the need for wooden warships to a desire to promote suburban house-building. 其中,government原词复现,advocacy和policy and subsidy是近义词。

  54. C) Their capability of improving air quality.

  题型:细节题

  解题思路:根据题干关键词 our increasing desire for forests,定位到第三段第六、七句Nowadays forests are increasingly welcome because they suck in carbon pollution from the air. The justifications change; the desire for more trees remains constant. 其中,improving air quality和定位句的 suck in carbon pollution from the air是同义替换。

  55. D) Developed and developing countries are moving in opposite direction.

  题型:细节题

  解题思路: 根据题干关键词prospects of forestation,定位到最后一段,通过意思可得到发达国家和发展中国家正在走向相反的方向,因此选项D意思符合。

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