2015-04-17 17:42




  1Directions:For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write an essay on the title" How to Be aCivilized Tourist" You can give some suggestions on how to behave properly when travelling andfinally call on people to be civilized tourists.You should write at least150words but no morethan200 words.Write your essay on Answer Sheet 1.


  Questions {下列各题}are based on the following passage.

  Basic health interventions may significantly reduce deaths among young children with sickle cellanemia ( 镰状细胞血症) The illness causes the body to produce sickle or disc shaped red blood cellsmaking it difficult for them to (36)_________oxygen from the lungs. The number of newborns with theinherited blood disease is increasing, (37)_________in sub-Saharan Africa.

  A new study in PLOS Medicine says by 2050 over 400-thousand babies will be born every year withsickle cell anemia Sherry Webb is given an (38)_________ for pain relief by a nurse at the SickleCell Center in Truman Medical Center, Wednesday, March 7, 2007 in Kansas City. Pain management isvital in the care of patients (39)_________ from Sickle Cell disease. That's an increase of about100-thousand per year. Most of those births will occur in Nigeria, Democratic Republic of Congo andIndia The three countries (40)_________for 75 percent of sickle cell newborns in 2010. Dr.Frederic Piel led the research by the University of Oxford in Kenya .

  "It's a genetic disorder and if you (41)_________one copy of the gene from one of your parents, youdon't have any symptoms and you're called a (42)_________or a heterozygote individual. If youinherit two copies from your parents, then you have sickle cell anemia, which is quite.(43)_________and lethal in countries where there is no treatment (44)_________," he said .

  It was initially limited to malaria endemic areas, but because of population (45)_________it's nowcommon in many other parts of the world So this is clearly a global burden and it's going toincrease.
























  The Public Health Crisis Hiding in Our Food

  A.If you have high blood pressure, you're in good company.Hypertension (高血压) afflicts 67million Americans, including nearly two-thirds of people over age 60.But it isn't an inevitablepart of the aging process.It's better to think of it as chronic sodium intoxication (钠中毒).And,as an important new study from Britain shows, there's a way to prevent the problem--and to savemany, many lives.

  B.A lifetime of consuming too much sodium--mostly in the form of sodium chloride (氯化钠) , ortable salt--raises blood pressure, and high blood pressure kills and disables people by triggeringstrokes and heart attacks.In the United States, according to best estimates, excess sodium iskilling between 40,000 and 90,000 people and running up to $20 billion in medical costs a year.C.Americans on average take in about 3,300 milligrams of sodium per day, but experts recommend lessthan 2,300 milligrams--and less than 1,500 milligrams for people over age 50, black people, or thosewho already have hypertension, diabetes (糖尿病)or kidney (肾脏)disease, which adds up to a majorityof American adults.Either target is far below where most Americans are now.

  D.The reason that nearly everyone eats too much sodium is that our food is loaded with it, andoften where we don't taste or expect it.Of course ham and canned soup are full of salt, but so aremany foods that are surprising: A blueberry muffin (松饼.can have more than double the salt of aserving of potato chips, Even healthy-sounding food can pack heavy sodium loads.Two slices of wholewheat bread can have nearly 400 milligrams of sodium, as can two tablespoons of fat-free saladdressing.Eight ounces of V8 vegetable juice contains well over 500 milligrams.Many restaurantentrees (主菜)have far more sodium than is recommended for an entire day.Applebee's lemon shrimpfettuccine (意大利宽面条) , at 5,100 milligrams, has more than twice as much.

  E.Doctors warn people with high blood pressure to go on a low-salt diet, but that's virtuallyimpossible in today's world, because nearly 80 percent of the sodium that Americans eat comes inpackaged and restaurant food (whether it’s a bagel, a sandwich or a steak dinner..You can't takeit out.And nearly everyone, not just people with hypertension puzzling over food labels, should betaking in less sodium.The only way to prevent millions of Americans from developing high bloodpressure is for companies and restaurants to stop loading up their food with sodium.

  F.Health experts have been asking the food industry to do that for decades.It's not easy, but itisn't impossible either.Sure, we all like the taste of salt, but there is much that food companiescan do without driving away customers.Often they add sodium for leavening (发酵)or food texture(质地) rather than taste, when replacement ingredients are available.And sodium levels in similarpopular foods made by different manufacturers often vary two- or threefold (for example, a slice ofpizza can pack anywhere from between 370 and 730 milligrams., which suggests that many manufacturers can cut sodium levels in their foods sharply without hurting taste.When salt levelsin food drop, people's preference for salt also shifts down, so no one would notice a gradualreduction in sodium across all foods.

  G.That's exactly what Britain's Food Standards Agency has done.It divided processed food intodifferent categories, set salt-reduction targets in each category and then asked companies to meetthose targets over time.And as these companies did that, from 2001 to 2011, sodium consumption bythe British fell 15 percent.The new study shows that this drop in salt intake has been accompaniedby a substantial reduction in average blood pressure, a 40 percent drop in deaths from heart attacksand a 42 percent decline in deaths from stroke.

  H.A few scientific critics have been arguing for years that reducing salt intake is risky becauseit might increase mortality in some people receiving aggressive treatment for congestive heartfailure, but the British data show at a national level what smaller studies project--that whensodium levels in everyone's food drop, so does the number of people dying from heart disease andstroke.

  I.Lower smoking rates in Britain no doubt are helping as well, but as the authors of the study point out, the fall in mortality echoes the success of Japan and Finland in earlier decades, both ofwhich reduced sodium consumption from sky-high levels with focused government efforts and saw hugedrops in heart attacks and strokes.

  J.Here in the United States, in 2010, an Institute of Medicine panel was so troubled by salt-causeddeaths that it called for mandatory federal standards for sodium in food But the question of whetherthe Food and Drug Administration (F.D.A) .should regulate salt is more complicated than it mightseem at first.As an expert once told me, you're never going to ban pickles (泡菜).

  K.The only way to regulate that I can see is to set maximum sodium levels within many differentfood categories.But that could .lead to opposite results if the levels are set high and then thecompanies already making food with sodium below those levels take the new limits as license toincrease to the maximum amount of sodium permitted I believe that in the end we will need a combination of mandated maximums and a coordinated voluntary sodium-reduction program like that inBritain.But the voluntary plan should come first, to see how much sodium levels can be reduced thatway.

  L.There is absolutely no reason we can't do an initiative similar to Britain's on this side of theAtlantic now.Over the last four years, the New York City health department has led the NationalSalt Reduction Initiative, a network of over 90 health departments and national organizations, including the American Medical Association, the American Heart Association, the American College ofCardiology and Consumers Union, working with food companies to voluntarily cut sodium, usingBritain as a model.

  M.Twenty-one companies, including food giants like Kraft, Unilever and Subway, and many others likeMars and Goya, have joined, putting less sodium in common products like processed cheese and cannedbeans.But far more food companies are ignoring it, and the initiative got no commitments at all in18 of 62 packaged food categories.

  N.A proposal as important to human life as this needs the stature and resources of the federalgovernment to bring the rest of the food industry along.The FD.A.has been developing a new planfor a voluntary, coordinated, national initiative.Unfortunately, even though it is voluntary, thefood industry is fighting it, and the plan is stalled (停滞不前)

  O.Many people are unnecessarily on kidney dialysis (透析), in stroke rehabilitation (康复) centers and dying because we are failing to act.Even modest reductions in sodium in food could savetens of thousands of lives and billions in health care costs every year.No one likes governmentmandates (指令)these days.But it's high time the federal government starts to fix this problem byat least leading a voluntary initiative that we know will save many lives.

  47It's possible that food companies reduce sodium substantially in their foods with little effect ontheir taste.

  48The American federal government is called for to take a lead in controlling the sodium in food

  49The achievements of another two countries suggest that smoking relates less to the decline indeaths from heart disease and stroke in Britain.

  50The foods that contain sodium and the amount of sodium they contain are beyond our imagination.

  51To set maximum amounts of sodium within different food categories may not bring the expectedresults.

  52Annually tens of thousands of deaths and huge medical expenditures are caused by a life-longconsumption of excess sodium in the USA)

  53Now it's hard for people to eat less sodium since sodium mainly comes from the foods produced bycompanies and restaurants.

  54It is sodium, rather than aging, that is responsible for high blood pressure that millions ofAmericans suffer from.

  55An initiative based on Britain's model has received limited success in the USA)

  56The average amount of sodium consumed by an American per day is well above the recommendedlevel.

官方微信:新东方四六级 (微信号:xdfcet46





  • 动态
  • 报考
  • 成绩
  • 辅导


          班级名称 上课地点 上课时间 费用 详细




          凡本网注明"稿件来源:新东方"的所有文字、图片和音视频稿件,版权均属新东方教育科技集团(含本网和新东方网) 所有,任何媒体、网站或个人未经本网协议授权不得转载、链接、转贴或以其他任何方式复制、发表。已经本网协议授权的媒体、网站,在下载使用时必须注明"稿件来源:新东方",违者本网将依法追究法律责任。