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2017年12月六级第二套仔细阅读解析(杭州新东方)

2017-12-25 17:59

来源:新东方整理

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      Passage One

  46. What question does the example in the movie raise?

  答案:A) Whether robots can reach better decisions.

  分析:关于电影的例子出现在第一段,讲的是一部电影中,机器人通过计算两个掉入水中的人的生存机率从而决定到底救哪个。通过这个例子,作者提出了一个疑问,也就是这题题目,即would humans make the same choice? And which choice would we want our robotic counterparts to make? 联系整篇文章主题,可得知机器人如何做出正确的决定是问题所在。

  47. What does the author think of Asimov’s three laws of robotics?

  答案:D. They did not take moral issues into consideration.

  分析:第二段提到Isaac Asimov evaded the whole notion of morality in devising his three laws of robotics,作者认为Asimov在制定机器人三定律时,刻意避开了道德问题。通过下文These laws are programmed into Asimov’s robots—they don’t have to think, judge, or value也可得出。

  48. What does the author say about Asimov’s robots?

  答案:B. They are programmed not to hurt human beings.

  分析:通过细看Asimov的机器人三定律1. Robots cannot harm humans or allow humans to come to harm; 2. Robots must obey humans, except where the order would conflict with law 1; and 3. Robots must act in self-preservation, unless doing so conflicts with laws 1 or 2 可以得出,三定律的基本主题就是不能伤害人类。下文还提到They don’t have to like humans or believe that hurting them is wrong or bad. They simply don’t do it. 从They simply don’t do it.就可以看出Asimov不允许机器人伤害人类。

  49. What does the author want to say by mentioning the word “harm” in Asimov’s laws?

  答案:A. Abstract concepts are hard to program.

  分析:作者说,A word such as “harm” is vague (what about emotional harm? Is replacing a human employee harm?), and abstract concepts present coding problems. “伤害”这一词的概念本就是模糊的,并且给出进一步解释,抽象概念给机器人编程上也带来了问题。

  50. What has the roboticist at the Bristol Robotics Laboratory found in his experiment?

  答案:C. Robots can have trouble making decisions in complex scenarios.

  分析:根据题干信息可定位到最后一段。文章首句就指出Assessing situations can be complicated. 判断情况对机器人来说是困难的。When one H-bot headed for danger, the robot successfully pushed it out of the way. But when two H-bots became imperiled, the robot choked 42 percent of the time, unable to decide which to save and letting them both “die.” 转折处可以看出,当情况变复杂时,机器人就无法决定到底救哪个。

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